名词变复数的规则是什么?

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名词变复数的规则是什么?

1.一般名词复数是在名词后面加上“s”,如map→maps,bag→bags等;
2.以s,sh,ch,x等结尾的词加“es”,如bus→buses,watch→watches等;
3.以辅音字母+y结尾的词,变y为i加es,如baby→babies等;以元音字母+ y结尾的名词变复数时,直接加s变复数,如monkey→monkeys,holiday→holidays,storey→storeys(楼层);
4.以o 结尾的名词变复数时:
a)加s的名词有:photo→photos ,piano→pianos,radio→radios,zoo→zoos
b)加es的名词有:
potato→potatoes tomato→tomatoes
5.以f或fe结尾的名词变复数时:
a)加s的名词有:
belief→beliefs roof→roofs
safe→safes gulf→gulfs
b)去掉f,fe 加ves的名词有:
half→halves knife→knives
leaf→leaves wolf→wolves
wife→wives life→lives thief→thieves
一、绝大多数的可数名词的复数形式,是在该词末尾加上后辍-s.
读音变化:结尾是清辅音读[s],结尾是浊辅音或元音读[z].
例:friend→friends; cat→cats; style→styles; sport→sports; piece→pieces
二、凡是以s、z、x、ch、sh结尾的词,在该词末尾加上后辍-es构成复数.
读音变化:统一加读[iz].
例:bus→buses; quiz→quizzes; fox→foxes; match→matches; flash→flashes box →boxes; watch →watches; actress →actresses; class →classes; coach(长途车) →coaches; dress →dresses; sandwich →sandwiches; toothbrush →toothbrushes; waitress(女侍者) →waitresses
三、以辅音字母+y结尾的名词,将y改变为i,再加-es.
读音变化:加读[z].
例:candy→candies; daisy(雏菊)→daisies; fairy→fairies; lady→ladies; story→stories
strawberry →strawberries; baby →babies; puppy →puppies; library →libraries; dictionary →dictionaries; cherry →cherries; activity →activities
四、以-o结尾的名词,如果不是外来词或缩写,就加-es,否则加-s构成复数.(有生命的加es,无生命的加s)
读音变化:加读[z].
例:tomato→tomatoes; potato→potatoes; torpedo(鱼雷)→torpedoes; bingo(彩票式游戏)→bingoes
反例:silo(青贮塔)→silos; piano→pianos(外来词); photo→photos; macro(宏指令,计机算语言)→macros(缩写词)
五、以-f或-fe结尾的名词,多为将-f或-fe改变为-ves,但有例外.
读音变化:尾音[f]改读[vz].
例:knife→knives; life→lives; leaf→leaves; staff(员工)→staves; scarf(围巾)→scarves
目前搜集的直接加s:roof-roofs,belief-beliefs,gulf(海湾)-gulfs,serf(农奴)-serfs,safe-safes,chief(负责人)-chiefs
这几个可变可不变:scarf-scarfs,handkerchief- handkerchiefs
六、以-us结尾的名词(多为外来词),通常将-us改变为-i构成复数.
读音变化:尾音[Es]改读[ai],其中[kEs]要改读为[sai],[gEs]要改读为[dVai].
例:fungus(真菌)→fungi; abacus(算盘)→abaci; focus(焦点)→foci; cactus(仙人掌)→cacti; cestus(拳击用的牛皮手套)→cesti
七、以-is结尾的名词,通常将-is改变为-es.
读音变化:尾音[is]改读[i:z].
例:axis(轴线)→axes; basis→bases; naris(鼻孔)→nares; hypothesis(假设)→hypotheses; restis(索状体)→restes